If fears become excessive and out of control, then phobias are mentioned. Phobias it is a state of extreme fear and anxiety towards an object, activity or situation that does not actually create a danger. People with phobias are aware that their fears are absurd and irrational, but they cannot prevent them. Phobias sometimes affect a person’s daily and social life negatively, and may make him / her unable to work at the same time in the person who is exposed to his / her phobia, palpitations, flushing, sweating, shortness of breath, dry mouth and difficulty swallowing.

Phobias have no definite cause. As with most mental problems, the cause of phobias can be biological, genetic or environmental. They may vary according to their types and from person to person. But on the basis of phobias, mostly bad memories in childhood are effective. For example, a person with a fear of confinement is likely to have been locked in a confined space during his childhood or left alone at home.

Social Phobia: Social phobia is a common form of phobia. The person who has heard of social phobia is very afraid of being in the community. He believes that people make fun of him and humiliate him. He thinks that everyone is looking at him and talking to him when he talks. When a student with social phobia tries to tell a lesson, his tongue is kept, his face turns red, he forgets what he has to say, everyone seems to be looking at him and his performance decreases. Social phobics are aware that their fears are meaningless, but they cannot prevent their fears .

Agoraphobia: Agoraphobia is a common sense of anxiety that occurs when one enters environments that cannot be easily escaped. Going alone on the street, cinema, shopping centers, such as crowded or traveling by car, bus, or subway. These people may feel unwell on the street and cannot leave the house in time. Agoraphobia is common in patients with panic attacks Most agoraphobia is based on seizures of panic attacks.
Specific phobias: Specific phobias can be defined as excessive fear of a particular object or situation. There are thousands of varieties such as spider phobia, mouse phobia, airplane phobia, height phobia, loneliness, indoor phobia, and other phobias. Without treatment, it is unlikely that phobias will recover. The aim of phobia treatment is to prevent an individual’s avoidance behavior and to reduce the high level of anxiety in certain situations. The most common type of therapy used in phobias is cognitive behavioral therapy. In cognitive behavioral therapy, the most commonly used technique is confrontation therapy. In this method, the person is taught to cope with the anxiety that arises on the situation or object that creates fear. Relaxation techniques and breathing training are helpful in treatment. The duration of treatment varies according to the severity, prevalence, and characteristics of the individual.



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